Quick Answer: What Does Er Mean In Science?

What is an ER in science?

Endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ), in biology, a continuous membrane system that forms a series of flattened sacs within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and serves multiple functions, being important particularly in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins.

What does ER do in a cell?

The endoplasmic reticulum can either be smooth or rough, and in general its function is to produce proteins for the rest of the cell to function. The rough endoplasmic reticulum has on it ribosomes, which are small, round organelles whose function it is to make those proteins.

What does the endoplasmic reticulum do kid definition?

Endoplasmic reticulum is a collection of tubes that make, package, and transport proteins and fats. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has protein-making ribosomes on its surface, so it helps make and process proteins. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum helps make and process lipids and helps detoxify drugs and alcohol.

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What does endoplasmic reticulum do simple?

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle. It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), so called because it is studded with ribosomes, and secretes proteins into the cytoplasm.

What is rough ER in biology?

Alternative Titles: RER, rough ER. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), series of connected flattened sacs, part of a continuous membrane organelle within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that plays a central role in the synthesis of proteins.

What is the structure of ER?

The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes called cisternae. These sac-like structures are held together by the cytoskeleton. The phospholipid membrane encloses the cisternal space (or lumen), which is continuous with the perinuclear space but separate from the cytosol.

What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER?

The most basic difference between RER and SER is the presence of ribosomes. When ribosomes attach to the surface of an ER, it gives a characteristic rough appearance; hence it is called Rough ER. On the other hand, a smooth ER does not have ribosomes on its surface. It possesses ribosomes attached to its membrane.

Are smooth and rough ER connected?

Rough and smooth ER are typically connected to one another so that the proteins and membranes made by the rough ER can freely move into the smooth ER for transport to other parts of the cell.

What are the four major functions of the endoplasmic reticulum?

The ER is the largest organelle in the cell and is a major site of protein synthesis and transport, protein folding, lipid and steroid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and calcium storage [1–7].

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What is the main function of ribosome?

Ribosomes have two main functions — decoding the message and the formation of peptide bonds. These two activities reside in two large ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) of unequal size, the ribosomal subunits. Each subunit is made of one or more ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and many ribosomal proteins (r- proteins ).

What does a ribosome do?

Ribosomes are the sites in a cell in which protein synthesis takes place. Cells have many ribosomes, and the exact number depends on how active a particular cell is in synthesizing proteins. For example, rapidly growing cells usually have a large number of ribosomes (Figure 5).

How does the nucleus and ER work together?

The nucleus houses the cell’s DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes. Mitochondria are responsible for ATP production; the endoplasmic reticulum modifies proteins and synthesizes lipids; and the golgi apparatus is where the sorting of lipids and proteins takes place.

Why is endoplasmic reticulum important?

In some cells SER is responsible for transmission of impulses, e.g muscle cells, nerve cells. It also plays an important role in transport of materials from one part of the cell to the other. Endoplasmic reticulum also provides mechanical support to the cell so that its shape is maintained.

What is the main function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions in many metabolic processes. It synthesizes lipids, phospholipids as in plasma membranes, and steroids. Cells that secrete these products, such as cells of the testes, ovaries, and skin oil glands, have an excess of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

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What is the main function of mitochondrion?

Mitochondria are membrane-bound cell organelles (mitochondrion, singular) that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell’s biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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